Hydrocarbons


  1. Basic Organic Information
    1. What are organic compounds?
      1. Molecules that contain carbon chains (a few to hundreds of carbons covalently bonded to one another).
      2. Usually have strong odors and low boiling points.
      3. Most do not conduct electricity.
      4. Most will ignite and burn.
      5. Slower rates of reactions.
    2. Organic Prefixes
      1. Meth - 1 carbon
      2. Eth - 2 carbons
      3. Prop - 3 carbons
      4. But - 4 carbons
      5. Pent - 5 carbons
      6. Hex - 6 carbons
      7. Hept -7 carbons
      8. Oct - 8 carbons
    3. Ways to represent Organic Compounds
      1. Molecular Formula - Usual formula, do NOT reduce.

      CH4

      1. Structural Formula - shows arrangement of atoms, atoms represented by symbol, pair of shared electrons represented as a dash.

      1. Condensed Structural Formula - shows arrangement of atoms without dashes.

      CH3CH2CH2CH3 or CH3(CH2)2CH3

      1. Carbon Skeleton - bare minimum, no symbols, just jagged lines with each point of the V representing a carbon (first and last part of V is each a carbon)

      Butane :

      More complex organic compounds and the carbon skeletons:

  2. Hydrocarbons
    1. Alkanes:
      1. Contain - Carbons and hydrogens with single bonds.
      2. Formula - CnH2n+2 (where n represents the number of carbons)
      3. Naming - Prefix (counting the number of carbons) -ane
      4. Examples
      Name
      Molecular Formula
      Structural Formula
      Condensed Structural Formula
      Carbon Skeleton
      propane
      C3H8

      CH3CH2CH3
      \/
      ethane
      C2H6

      CH3CH3
      \
    2. Alkenes:
      1. Contain - Carbons and hydrogens with one double bond.
      2. Formula - CnH2n
      3. Naming - Number (count from the smallest direction of where the double bond is on the molecule)- Prefix (counting the number of carbons) -ene
      4. Examples
      Name
      Molecular Formula
      Structural Formula
      Condensed Structural Formula
      Carbon Skeleton
      2-pentene
      C5H10

      CH3CHCHCH2CH3
      2-butene
      C4H8

      CH3CHCHCH3
    3. Alkynes:
      1. Contain - Carbons and hydrogens with one triple bond.
      2. Formula - CnH2n-2
      3. Naming - Number (count from the smallest direction of where the triple bond is on the molecule) Prefix (counting the number of carbons) -yne
      4. Examples
      Name
      Molecular Formula
      Structural Formula
      Condensed Structural Formula
      Carbon Skeleton
      3-heptyne
      C7H12

      CH3CH2CCCH2CH2CH3
      1-propyne
      C3H5

       

      CHCCH3